Kategorien: ADHS Allgemein

Genetics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Recent Updates and Future Prospects

<p><p> </p><p>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only highly prevalent, persistent and impairing but also is one of the most heritable of all psychiatric disorders. As a result, ADHD has been the focus of considerable genetic research. The results of recent genetic studies are reviewed with a focus on the emerging picture and future trends. ADHD appears to be a complex disorder in which multiple genetic and environmental risks contribute to a quantitative trait. At the same time, there is growing evidence that in a proportion of cases, individually rare variants such as copy number variants may play an important causal role. The more genetic risks, both common and rare, the more extreme the trait.With increasing samples and advanced genetic methods, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) conferring risk for ADHD are being identified. Further study will be required before we can understand the causal significance of these findings. Increased sample size is an urgent necessity if we are to discover potentially causal variants. Non-behavioral markers of genetic risk known as endophenotypes could also play a role in parsing the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of ADHD as they have in other complex disorders. Genetic studies in ADHD hold the potential for refined nosology, more precise diagnosis, and differential diagnosis, improved early identification leading to novel intervention strategies and identification of innovative targets for therapeutics based on a precise understanding of disease mechanism.</p><p> </p></p>

Kategorien: General information

Autor:R. Schachar
Quelle:Curr Dev Disord Rep (2014) 1:41–49
Keywords (deutsch):---
Keywords (englisch):Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Genetics, Endophenotypes, Candidate genes, Genome-wide, GWAS, CNV, Twin study, Family study