Potential Contribution of Dopaminergic Gene Variants in ADHD Core Traits and Co-Morbidity: A Study on Eastern Indian Probands
Association of dopaminergic genes, mainly receptors and transporters, with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been investigated throughout the world due to the importance of dopamine (DA) in various physiological functions including attention, cognition and motor activity, traits. However, till date, etiology of ADHD remains unknown. We explored association of functional variants in the DA receptor 2 (rs1799732 and rs6278), receptor 4 (exon 3 VNTR and rs914655), and transporter (rs28363170 and rs3836790) with hyperactivity, cognitive deficit, and co-morbid disorders in eastern Indian probands. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV was followed for recruitment of nuclear families with ADHD probands (N = 160) and ethnically matched controls (N = 160). Cognitive deficit and hyperactive traits were measured using Conner’s parents/teachers rating scale. Peripheral blood was collected after obtaining informed written consent and used for genomic DNA isolation. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-based methods followed by population- as well as family-based statistical analyses. Association between genotypes and cognitive/hyperactivity traits and co-morbidities was analyzed by the Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) software. Case–control analysis showed statistically significant difference for rs6278 and rs28363170 (P = 0.004 and 1.332e−007 respectively) while family-based analysis exhibited preferential paternal transmission of rs28363170 ‘9R’ allele (P = 0.04). MDR analyses revealed independent effects of rs1799732, rs6278, rs914655, and rs3836790 in ADHD. Significant independent effects of different sites on cognitive/hyperactivity traits and co-morbid disorders were also noticed. It can be summarized from the present investigation that these gene variants may influence cognitive/hyperactive traits, thereby affecting the disease etiology and associated co-morbid features.
|Autor:||Subhamita Maitra, Kanyakumarika Sarkar, Paramita Ghosh, Arijit Karmakar, Animesh Bhattacharjee, Swag|
|Quelle:||Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, 34 (4), 2014, 549-564|
|Keywords (englisch):||ADHD, Dopaminergic gene variants, Phenotypes, Co-morbidities|